Friday, March 20, 2020

Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables

Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables The two main variables in an experiment are the independent and dependent variable. An independent variable is the variable that is changed or controlled in a scientific experiment to test the effects on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured  in a scientific experiment. The dependent variable is dependent on the independent variable. As the experimenter changes the independent variable, the effect on the dependent variable is observed and recorded. Independent and Dependent Variable Example For example, a scientist wants to see if the brightness of light has any effect on a moth being attracted to the light. The brightness of the light  is controlled by the scientist. This would be the independent variable. How the moth reacts to the different light levels (distance to light source)  would be the dependent variable. How to Tell the Variables Apart The independent and dependent variables may be viewed in terms of cause and effect. If the independent variable is changed, then an effect is seen in the dependent variable. Remember, the values of both variables may change in an experiment and are recorded. The difference is that the value of the independent variable is controlled by the experimenter, while the value of the dependent variable only changes in response to the independent variable. Remembering Variables With DRYMIX When results are plotted in graphs, the convention is to use the independent variable as the x-axis and the dependent variable as the y-axis. The DRY MIX acronym can help keep the variables straight: D is the dependent variableR is the responding variableY is the axis on which the dependent or responding variable is graphed (the vertical axis) M is the manipulated variable or the one that is changed in an experimentI is the independent variableX is the axis on which the independent or manipulated variable is graphed (the horizontal axis) Independent vs Dependent Variable Key Takeaways The independent and dependent variables are the two key variables in a science experiment.The independent variable is the one the experimenter controls. The dependent variable is the variable that changes in response to the independent variable.The two variables may be related by cause and effect. If the independent variable changes, then the dependent variable is affected. Sources Carlson, Robert. A concrete introduction to real analysis. CRC Press, 2006. p.183.Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9Everitt, B. S. (2002). The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics (2nd ed.). Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Dromiceiomimus - Facts and Figures

Dromiceiomimus - Facts and Figures Name: Dromiceiomimus (Greek for emu mimic); pronounced DROE-mih-SAY-oh-MIME-us Habitat: Plains of North America Historical Period: Late Cretaceous (80-65 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 12 feet long and 200 pounds Diet: Probably omnivorous Distinguishing Characteristics: Relatively large eyes and brain; long legs; bipedal posture About Dromiceiomimus A close relative of the North American ornithomimids (bird mimic dinosaurs) Ornithomimus and Struthiomimus, the late Cretaceous Dromiceiomimus may have been the fastest of the bunch, at least according to one analysis of this theropods unusually long legs. At full tilt, Dromiceiomimus may have been capable of hitting speeds of 45 or 50 miles per hour, though it probably stepped on the gas pedal only when it was being pursued by predators or itself in pursuit of small, skittering prey. Dromiceiomimus was also notable for its relatively large eyes (and correspondingly big brain), which matched up oddly with this dinosaurs weak, toothless jaws. As with most ornithomimids, paleontologists speculate that Dromiceiomimus was omnivorous, feeding mostly on insects and vegetation but pouncing on the occasional small lizard or mammal when the opportunity presented itself. Now for the catch: many, if not most, paleontologists believe that Dromiceiomimus was actually a species of Ornithomimus, and not deserving of genus status. When this dinosaur was discovered, in Canadas Alberta province in the early 1920s, it was initially classified as a species of Struthiomimus, until Dale Russell reexamined the remains in the early 1970s and erected the genus Dromiceiomimus (emu mimic). A few years later, though, Russell changed his mind and synonymized Dromiceiomimus with Ornithomimus, arguing that the main feature distinguishing these two genera (the length of their legs) wasnt truly diagnostic. Long story short: while Dromiceiomimus persists in the dinosaur bestiary, this difficult-to-spell dinosaur may soon go the way of Brontosaurus!

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Possible Approaches in Counseling People Dealing With Bereavement Article

Possible Approaches in Counseling People Dealing With Bereavement - Article Example Death is not a mystery to those who have died. The people living are the ones who struggle to find meaning in it. As far back as 60,000 years ago, prehistoric people observed special ceremonies when burying their dead. Many early cultures believed that people continued to exist after death and had the same needs that they did in life; hence they buried their loved ones with food, dishes, weapons, and jewels. Some religions, such as Christianity, believe that the dead will rise again; to them, the burial of the body is symbolic, like the planting of a seed in the earth to await rebirth. Many Eastern religions share the belief that death marks the end only of physical existence and of the limited view of reality that human beings can grasp. Death itself is a remote experience in most lives today, something that takes place off-stage in a hospital or nursing-home. In earlier times, dying was a much more visible part of daily living. Families, friends, and other loved ones in a community would share in caring for those at the end of life (Schulz et al., 27 June 2001) Most deaths occurred at home, often following a brief illness and unaffected by the limited medical care available. Today, the process of dying almost has become invisible, but it still summons pain among the loved ones left (Bern-Krug et al., February 2001). Coping with loss is a process with an individual course, tem... There are others who benefit from, and still others who continue to require the assistance of, qualified psychotherapists in confronting the void left by death. There is no single ideal time point for therapeutic intervention. As practiced today, bereavement counselling is a valuable and non-stigmatizing method of assisting the bereaved who have difficulty entering, traversing or exiting the grief and mourning process. Review of Literature Throughout history, numerous writers and researchers have articulated their views of what constitutes the bereaved state and its associated actions, particularly since 1970. The earliest conceptualizations was done by Freud (1957), where he related it to loss situation-specific depressive syndromes, and he spoke of restitution of cathected or invested energies, particularly those of id origin. Later formulations bore the hallmark of attachment theory grounding, wherein the broken bond with the lost object/person is the subject and object of a universal psychosocial process leading to eventual reconciliation of painful feelings and reattachment to life, living and, for some, even new relationships. Colin Murray Parkes (1972) also cited stigma and deprivation as key features of the bereavement experience. These authors based their findings largely on studies of widows in Britain, Australia, and North America. Many of these seminal works on bereavement brought about a linear stage model of progression to some better state post-loss. Examples include the popularized views of Elisabeth Kbler-Ross (1969), who wrote of movement from denial, through anger, to bargaining, then to depression, and finally to acceptance. This often misrepresented and misused description none the less has

Monday, February 3, 2020

Cultural and Intercultural Communication Practices Essay

Cultural and Intercultural Communication Practices - Essay Example For example, the United States of American and the United Kingdom are countries that considered low context groups due to their standard form of communication style and tone. In these countries, communication is done in the context of messages to a large population versus a specialized group. With this understanding, low context culture is also known to communicate through words and verbal cues versus allowing people to make their own inferences through the context of a given scenario or event. Because of these aspects, people in low context cultures tend to be more logical, individualistic, action-oriented and linear than those in high context cultures (Marin n.d.). Low context communication is expected to be concise and straightforward so there is little room for error when listening to communication messages. While low context cultures center on large populations, a high context culture focuses on types of communication messages that are specific to a certain group within the cult ure. With the purpose of high context cultures being to communicate specifically between specialized groups within a culture, people have a lot more opportunity to use their own inferences to make decisions and gather information versus those in a low context culture. Examples of high context cultures include France, China, Japan, Russia and India. Within high context cultures, people generally focus more on interpersonal relationships and building trust within the groups. Communication, whether written or verbal, in a high context culture is more formal than low context with special attention being paid to the way a message is delivered. People in a high context culture will focus on a person’s tone, facial expression and demeanor when communicating just as much as they focus on the actual message itself. With the definitions of these terms established, the focus can now shift to analyzing how low context and high context cultures interact with intercultural contact and inte rcultural ethics. When people from differing cultures communicate, there is a need for each party to assess their own communication tendencies as well as those of the person they are hoping to communicate with. For example, an American who is native of the state of New Jersey may have trouble communicating with a person who lives in Japan or China. When analyzing the more formal and contextual ways in which people from many Asian countries communicate, the laid back, potentially brash way in which someone native of the state of New Jersey, which is a low context culture, communicate might not mesh well with the Asian culture. In order to understand the potential issues that can arise when cultures and contexts mix, it is important for all parties involved to do some preparation work before the meeting takes place. First, people from both cultures need to gather some background information about the culture the other person is coming from. By asking themselves if it is a high context or low context culture, they will be able to determine if the person they are going to be attempting to communicate with is comfortable with a laid back style or expects a formal tone and sense of conduct

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Effect of Divorce on Children

The Effect of Divorce on Children Divorce and their effect on children Introduction: One of the prime feature of the modern age happens to be the rising index of performance pressure and market competition. Immaterial of the genre, competition happens to be the order of the day in the current times. Quite naturally we see that the pressure, tension and the anxiety quotient in the current times is on an ever increase. The people in this age always happen to on the edge of everything and are running an inevitable race for their retribution. Everything I seems depends on the results or the outcome of this race, the survival of the fittest has become the order of the day. Quite naturally we see that the modern men and women always happen to be in a frenzy regarding the quality of their output or performance. It seems that being on the top is what that matters the most at the of the day. Hence this almost barbaric pressure at work often takes a toll on the personal health and the personal lives of the current age men and women. Family life in the course of events takes ab ack seat and relationships often becomes a second priority. Hence one hand if professional excellence marks the era, on the other hand dilapidation of the institution of relationships is also a quintessential feature of the reigning times. Quite naturally the unfortunate event of breaking down of relationships, an often example of which is found in the divorce settlements of married couples happens to be a regular feature in the current times. The research in its discourse tries to analyze the hidden effects of these divorces on the unfortunate and innocent children of these couples who happens to face the worse brunt of these divorce cases. Problem Statement: As mentioned in the earlier segment although divorce is a settlement that happens between two individuals the brunt is often born by more people than just the man and the woman who decides to part their ways. It has been observed that although divorce is an unfortunate event and is disliked by people and societies all over the world but there are certain more orthodox societies to whom the implications of such an event happens to be all the more grave and perilous. In such societies breaking down of marriages are seen as the worst social dishonor that can be brought down to the families of the man and woman involved in the decision. The situation happens to be all the more grave and disturbing if children are involved. As clearly stated earlier although the decision of parting ways happens to be that of the man and the woman who are living as husband and wife, the total effect of the situation is worst on that of the psyche of the children of the couples. Every research has a statement that happens to be the protagonist idea or concern of the discussion, investigation of which adds further significant dimensions to the discussion. The statement in this case happens to be the facet of the effects of the process of divorce between a couple that can be observed on the psyche of their children. On the pivot of this statement the research delves deeper into the psychological problems that has often been found to develop in the personalities of the children from the broken homes and the consequences of the same that has been recorded pertaining to the society and their own families that gets build up in the future. The problem statement reflects and revolves around the effects of divorce that has been observed on the children especially against the traditional backdrop of UAE society. Research Question: Every research has a few questions stated clearly within the scope of their discussion. I fact it can be said that the course of the research proceeds with the answers that are found in the investigation of the said questions. These questions happens to elucidate the basic points of concern that happens to be the protagonist ideas of the research. In this context it can be said that there is a popular belief that every research is to have as single question answering which will be the sole aim of the research discourse. However in this reference it can be said that a said research can have more than a single question as the central attention of the scope of research. Along with the main or the protagonist question new cans ay that there can be a number of other tributary and distributary questions answering which can be also within the scope of the research. In fact the answers to these tributary and distributary questions might add new dimensions to the research. In the case of our research the main question happens to be is to evaluate the effects of divorce that can be observed on the children of the broken home. The research happens to be set against the particular backdrop of UAE. However in addition to the main question there will be certain other allied questions that will also have to be answered in the course of the research. Following are the other questions that also has to be answered in the course of the discussion: What can be the consequences of the effects of divorce in the future? How does the society gets effected by these children from broken homes in the coming future. What are ways that society can help rebuild the personality and the future of these children. What are the steps that the parents can take to comfort and support their children as parents to their children and jot as a couple after their separation. How to treat such children Research Objectives: The objectives of a research often happens to be to bring about certain effects or to influence the filed in which the research is being conducted or regarding which investigations are being made. The objective for all researches happens to create a difference in the future and to alter the way things are being done in the present. The objective in short of all researches is to make a positive contribution in the filed of research so that the society can see a better tomorrow. Our research happens to be no different. The investigation that we are making into the effects of divorce that has been observed in the children from the broken homes also has its main objective of giving these children a better future by suggesting means and methods to them, their families and the society in general regarding the kind of help that they can extend to these little hearts and minds in the times of some very grave challenges. Following are the objectives that can be listed of our said research: Finding ways and means through which the friends and families can support and comfort children facing the trauma. Make the parents realize the difficulty that they have put their children into and hence the support that they can extend. Creating awareness in the society regarding the responsible and sensitive behavior that the children should be getting from their immediate society. To create an awareness and realization amongst the mature generation, regarding the problems that they throw in the ways of their little ones due to the brash and irresponsible behaviors of theirs’. Conclusions: On a concluding note it can be said that divorce is probably the last resort that is left as an option to the couples. In case the couple also happens to be parents, their decision regarding the future must take in to account their responsibility as a father and a mother and must be in alignment with the task of giving their children a promising and stable future.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Laura Robertsons: “Girl Unprotected” Essay

Personal fulfillment is not a genetic attribute; it is evolved individually over time, and changes in time it takes to achieve. Personal fulfillment is not deteriorated by lack of action, therefore it is subject to change, it may increase or decrease in a person’s life. A individual can acquire personal fulfillment through family, friends, exposure and environment. The Rez Sisters is a play written by Tomson Highway. Readers are introduced to seven extravagant characters, all of whom are residents of Wasaychigan Hill Indian Reserve, in Manitoba Island, Ontario. These seven characters are sisters, half ­sisters, a sister ­in ­law and an adopted niece, known all together as the Rez sisters. Each one of these women are on their own journey to self ­fulfillment, wanting to acquire confidence, peace of mind and simply, to be satisfied with their life. The women raise money to fund a trip to The Biggest Bingo in the World, where they could potentially win the jackpot and fulfill their most desired wishes. In the preparation and on the journey, the women reveal their stories and their relationships with each other. In the play The Rez Sisters, Tomson Highway uses Bingo to symbolize the risks and gambles that life possesses, Pelajia’s hammer to symbolize the ability to create, build and even reshape destiny, and the color black which signifies strength and empowerment in order to depict the essentials an individual must have in order to acquire personal fulfillment  ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­ whatever it may be. First, when readers are introduced to Pelajia Patchnose she is dressed in men’s attire and â€Å"is alone on the roof of her house, nailing shingles on† (1113). It symbolizes a woman who is not bound by culturally defined gender roles, is independent and therefore strong. From this initial introduction to the moment when the seven women are in an argument, Pelajia’s hammer almost seems as if it never leaves her side; the mental and emotional strength she possesses never truly diminishes but only gets stronger. Pelajia uses her hammer on other occasions as well; when all seven of the women get into an argument â€Å"she raises her hammer at veronique† (1132), with the intention to scare her and obtain dominance through fear. Some may view the hammer as a weapon and/or a symbol of defense such as Thor’s hammer. In Germanic mythology Thor’s Hammer is called ‘Mjollnir’, meaning ‘crusher’(Davidson Ellis, 1965), unlike the symbol depicted in The Rez Sisters, Thor’s hammer symbolizes a weapon used to kill. In many myths, â€Å"Thor sometimes uses the hammer as a blunt instrument, to shatter the skulls of his opponents†(Dav idson, Ellis. 1965). A hammer is seen as a tool used to construct and reshape. This is evident when Pelajia physically uses her hammer in the opening scene to rebuild her home. A hammer also represents the ability to change, Pelajia was not only able to change the physical state of her home, but has the ability to change any aspect of her life and manipulate it in order to fulfill her personal desires. In her words: the â€Å"trusty silver hammer† (1114) is her source of strength, the strength an individual needs to overcome obstacles and barriers in order to conquer life and their own destiny in a way that leads to the best results. The symbolism amplifies the theme of the passage because an individual must be tough like the iron end of a hammer, have the ability to mold themselves to changing circumstances and acquire an intense drive and commitment to get through challenging times if they want to fulfill their personal aspirations. Next, when the topic of The Biggest Bingo in the World is brought up, readers learn   what a big deal the bingo was to Wasy women, it symbolizes the tempting gambles life has to offer. No individual can truthfully say they have had enough willpower to overcome the wrath of temptation. It is like a bad cold; everyone attempts to avoid it as much as possible, but at some point, it gets the best of everyone, including the Wasy women. Each woman had her own desires but they all shared a collective journey towards them. In order to attend The Biggest Bingo in the World the women had to overcome an obstacle which was to raise enough money to travel to Toronto where it was being held. On the journey to self ­fulfilment a person is bound to face obstacles, it is up to the individual if they want to let that hurdle stop them, or gain the inner strength to overcome it. The Wasy women chose the latter; â€Å"the women start[ed] their funding activities with a vengeance†(1143) raising a total of at least â€Å"$1,400†(1143) which was a large sum of money especially on the Wasaychigan Hill Indian Reserve, since there were â€Å"no jobs† (1115). The women had to ask themselves another tough question; Considering the possibility of returning home empty handed, was risking this much money to win The Biggest Bingo in the World worth it? By using bingo as a symbol, Highway suggests that in order to accomplish personal fulfillment you need to take chances in life even if they may seem risky at first. Taking risks empowers you to establish new limits in your mind. As Stacia Pierce, a columnist from the Huffington Post states â€Å"we all have boundaries or a comfort zone where we [would] like to stay and many have misconstrued visions of what we think we deserve or are capable of accomplishing†(Huffington Post, 2013). When you take risks, you can basically destroy such a mindset and continue to establish new boundaries, improve your perspective on life   and your ability to achieve on high levels. Finally, throughout the play there are numerous reoccurances of the color black, it symbolizes the depths of the unknown and encourages the imagination of a different world from that of everyday realities. Tomson Highway uses this symbolism when he describes the transition of Nanabush from a Seagull to the Nighthawk. The Nighthawk is the dancer in dark feathers with â€Å"black wings†(1154) as Zhaboonigan describes. In Native American culture the color black was perceived as a â€Å"living† color and worn on the face to prepare for war (WarPaths2PeacePipes, 2014). Black is an extremely aggressive color. Black meant strength. It also indicated that the wearer was a powerful warrior who had proved himself in battle, therefore black was also used to symbolize victory and human life. By using the color black as a symbol, Highway shows readers that there is no boundary to the extent of personal fulfillment; the amount of things an individual can accomplish in their lifetime is endless. Highway utilizes three components: Bingo, Pelajia’s hammer and the color black to embody the necessities a person needs in order to be successful in achieving any form of personal fulfillment; A person needs to be able to take risks, have strength to construct their own destiny and to explore beyond their imaginations. All these qualities are binded together with one common aspect that is easily relatable: self ­confidence. Initially, once an individual builds self ­confidence they easily surpass their goal which then creates a type of   momentum, where they fulfill every single one of their desires to the point where they are not only satisfied with life, but truly happy with it as well.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

GRE vs. MCAT Similarities, Differences, Which Test Is Easier

Choosing the best standardized test for graduate studies and your future career is a major step. Understanding the differences between the GRE and the MCAT will help you make an informed decision. The GRE, or Graduate Record Examinations, is a more general standardized test that is accepted for many different types of master’s degree programs and doctoral programs, primarily in the U.S. and Canada. The GRE General Test is written and administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The exam tests students’ aptitude in verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, and analytical writing. The Medical College Admission Test, or MCAT, is the â€Å"gold standard† for admission to nearly all medical schools in Canada and the United States. The MCAT is written by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and tests students’ knowledge of topics like the biological and social sciences, along with analytical reasoning, reading comprehension, and problem-solving skills. The GRE and MCAT test some of the same major content areas, but there are crucial differences between them. In this article, we’ll go over the main components and characteristics of each exam. The Major Differences Between the MCAT and the GRE Here’s an overview of the major differences between the exams in terms of purpose, length, format, cost, and other basics. GRE MCAT Purpose Admission to graduate schools, including master’s degree programs and doctoral programs, primarily in North America Admission to medical schools in North America, Australia, and the Caribbean Islands Format Computer-based test Computer-based test Length About 3 hours and 45 minutes, including a 10-minute break About 7 hours and 30 minutes Cost About $205.00 About $310.00 Scores Maximum score is 340, with each section worth 170 points; Analytical Writing section scored separately from 0-6 118-132 for each of the 4 sections; total score 472-528 Test Dates Computer-based test offered throughout the year; paper-based test offered 3 times a year in October, November, and February Offered from January-September each year, usually around 25 times Sections Analytical Writing; Verbal Reasoning; Quantitative Reasoning Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills The biggest overall content difference between the GRE and the MCAT is that the former tests primarily aptitude and skills, while the latter tests content knowledge as well.   Students who hope to do well on the MCAT will need to review concepts in subject areas like biochemistry, anatomy, physics, math, biology, sociology, and psychology. During the test, they will need to use that background knowledge in the natural, physical, and social sciences and apply it to answer questions. In contrast, the GRE is perhaps best described as a more advanced SAT or ACT. It tests cognitive aptitude and reasoning skills rather than specific background knowledge. There’s also a writing section in the GRE, which requires test-takers to write two analytical essays. Students looking to take this exam should practice writing GRE-style essays based on sample prompts. Finally, the MCAT is also around twice as long as the GRE, so it might be more difficult for you if you struggle with maintaining focus or cognitive endurance for long periods of time.   GRE vs. MCAT: Which Test Should You Take? Between the GRE and the MCAT, the MCAT is widely regarded as the more difficult of the two exams. It’s much longer and more focused on content knowledge than the GRE, which is more focused on general aptitude in certain areas. Many pre-med students say they take 300-350 hours to prepare for the MCAT. However, if you’re not as strong in writing or critical reading, if you’re a non-native English speaker, or have a somewhat limited vocabulary, the GRE may be more difficult for you.   Whether you should take the GRE or MCAT is ultimately dependent on where you’d like to go to school and your career path. Generally speaking, the GRE is more widely accepted and is used for admission to a wide variety of graduate schools, while the MCAT is specifically for admission to medical school.   If you aren’t sure yet whether you’d like to apply to medical school, it might be worth it to take the GRE and hold off on preparing for the MCAT at first. GRE scores are considered valid for five years, while MCAT scores are only considered valid for three. So you could potentially take the GRE first and wait to decide whether to take the MCAT. This could be a good move if you ultimately choose to go into a healthcare-related field, such as public health, rather than directly to medical school.   Another factor to consider is your potential career. Schools in certain specialty areas of medicine, such as veterinary medicine, might accept either the GRE or the MCAT from applicants. In that case, it may be better to take the GRE (unless you struggle with critical reading or writing), as it’s both less expensive and shorter.